Germanic is divided into three branches: East Germanic (including Gothic, now extinct), West Germanic (consisting of English, Dutch and German), and North Germanic (the Scandinavian languages besides Finnish).


  • Bammesberger, A. (1986). Der Aufbau des germanischen Verbalsystems. Heidelberg: C. Winter.
    Olin PD101.B19 v.1 in room 501

    An overview of Germanic verbal morphology with comparative lists.

  • Bammesberger, A. (1990). Die Morphologie des urgermanischen Nomens. Heidelberg: C. Winter.
    Olin PD101.B19 v.2 in room 501

    An overview of Germanic nominal morphology with comparative lists.

  • Braune, W., Reiffenstein, I., & Schrodt, R. (2004). Althochdeutsche Grammatik (15th ed.). Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    Olin PF3835.B8 2004 in room 501

    The standard grammar of Old High German; also has an accompanying reader.

  • Campbell, A. (1983). Old English grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Olin PE131.C19

    The classic grammar of Old English.

  • Gordon, E. V., & Taylor, A. R. (1981). An introduction to Old Norse (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Olin PD2237.G66 1981

    The standard introduction to Old Norse in English, with a wide selection of texts and glossary, but a bare-bones grammatical sketch.

  • Grimm, J., Scherer, W., Roethe, G., & Schröder, E. (1870). Deutsche grammatik. Neuer verm. abdruck. Berlin: F. Dümmler.
    Olin PD101.G86 1870

    Originally published in 1819, this is one of the earliest systematic works in historical philology, covering all the major Germanic languages. It contains the first statement of a non-trivial sound change in linguistics, Grimm's Law.

  • Holthausen, F. (1921). Altsächsisches Elementarbuch (2nd ed.). Heidelberg: C. Winter.
    Olin PF3994.H75 1921 in room 501

    The classic grammar of Old Saxon.

  • Krause, W. (1968). Handbuch des Gotischen (3rd ed.). München: Beck.
    Olin PD1123.K91 1968 in room 501

    A good comparative grammar of Gothic.

  • Prokosch, E. (1939). A comparative Germanic grammar. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America, University of Pennsylvania.
    Olin Oversize PD101.P96 +

    A good, if dated, overview of the history of Germanic.

  • Robinson, O. W. (1992). Old English and its closest relatives: A survey of the earliest Germanic languages. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Olin PE124.R63x 1992

    Approaches the history of Germanic from an English point of view; good for beginners.


  • de Vries, J. (1977). Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (2nd ed.). Leiden: E. J. Brill.
    Olin PD2363.V98 1977 in room 501

    The best etymological dictionary of Old Norse.

  • Holthausen, F. (1934). Altenglisches etymologisches wörterbuch. Heidelberg: C. Winter.
    Olin PE263.H75 in room 501

    An etymological dictionary of Old English; lists cognates in other IE languages but few reconstructions.

  • Kluge, F., & Seebold, E. (2011). Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (25th ed.). Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Olin PF3580.K5 2011 in room 501

    Very useful for German etymology.

  • Lehmann, W. P., Hewitt, H. J., & Feist, S. (1986). A Gothic etymological dictionary. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
    Olin PD1193.L52 1986

    A good Gothic dictionary; but reconstructed IE words in the etymologies deviate from the standard notation.

  • Schützeichel, R. (2012). Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch (7th ed.). Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Olin PF3975.S33 2012 in room 501

    An up-to-date and exhaustive Old High German dictionary, with full etymologies and contributions by major Indo-Europeanists.